Black Liberation

Martyrs

(A Partial Listing)

 

Nameless thousands have resisted even unto death for the liberation of African people, beginning on the shores of the Mother continent itself and continuing through the Middle Passage, Slavery, Jim Crowism, the Civil Rights Struggle, the Black Liberation Struggle, and the struggles of today. The fact that many of the names of these individuals are not known does not reduce the significance of their contribution to the struggle for Black Liberation. This compilation is an attempt to recognize and pay homage to those individuals who made the ultimate sacrifice for the liberation of Black/African people and should not be looked upon as discrediting the thousands, perhaps millions of others that have also struggled for true freedom, justice, and equality that are not listed. Our generation must now accept the torch that has been passed to us to guarantee our existence and our children's future. The Struggle Continues!

 

 

Zumbi dos Palmares (1655 - 1695)

Killed on November 20, 1695, in an ambush by Portuguese soldiers while conducting a guerilla campaign to maintain the independence of the Quilombo known as Palmares located in modern day Brazil. He was posthumously decapitated and his head impaled and placed on public display.

 

Camuanga dos Palmares (? - 1704)
Killed by Portuguese soldiers while leading a guerilla campaign to re-establish the independence of the Palmares Quilombo.

 

François Mackandal (? - 1758)

Executed: January 20, 1758 – Burned alive at the stake by French colonial troops for attempting to lead a slave revolt on the island of Santo Domingo in present day Haiti. Mackandal was captured after an ally was tortured into betraying him.

 

Dutty Boukman (? - 1791)

Executed:  November, 1791 – Killed by French colonial troops for his role in sparking the revolution on the island of Santo Domingo which encompasses present day Haiti and the Dominican Republic. His head was put on public display to dispel his aura of invincibility.

 

Gabriel Prosser (1776 - 1800)

Executed: October 7, 1800 by state of Virginia for plotting slave insurrection in Norfolk County.

 

Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743 - 1803)

Died due to complications related to imprisonment in a cold, mountain cell in France.

 

Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758 - 1806)

Assassinated: October 17, 1806 while functioning as the Revolutionary leader of Haiti.

 

General Garçon (? - 1815)

Executed: July 27, 1815 by Creek Indians in the service of the United States military for providing a safe haven for runaway slaves at the Appalachicola Fort in Florida.

 

Denmark Vesey (1767 - 1822)

Executed: July 2, 1822 by state of South Carolina along with 34 other Blacks for plotting slave insurrection in Charleston.

 

Bob Ferebee (? - 1823)

Executed: July, 1823 by state of Virginia for leading slave insurrection in Norfolk County.

 

David Walker (1785 - 1830)

Died under mysterious circumstances in Boston shortly after the publication and circulation of his widely read "Walker's Appeal". Believed to be poisoned.

 

John Brown (1800 - 1859)

Executed: October, 1859 for leading raid on Harper's Ferry in Virginia.

 

John Copeland (1834 - 1859)

Executed: December 16, 1859 for participating in raid on Harper's Ferry in Virginia.

 

Shields Green (c.1830 - 1859)

Executed: December 16, 1859 for participating in raid on Harper's Ferry in Virginia.

 

Nat Turner (1800 - 1831)

Executed: November 11, 1831 by state of Virginia for leading slave insurrection in Southampton County.

 

Samuel Sharpe (1801 - 1832)

Executed: January, 1832 – Hanged by Great Britain’s colonial administration in Jamaica for leading a slave rebellion in Kensington Estate in Saint James, Jamaica.

 

George William Gordon (1820 - 1865)

Executed: October 23, 1865 – Hanged by Great Britain’s colonial Governor of Jamaica in response to his social activism in Jamaica. He was conveniently grouped with other activists for trial in what became known as the Morant Bay Rebellion.

 

Paul Bogle (1822 - 1865)

Executed: October 24, 1865 – Hanged by Great Britain’s colonial Governor of Jamaica in response to his social activism in Jamaica which became known as the Morant Bay Rebellion.

 

Antonio Maceo [PRC] (1845 - 1896)
Killed in battle while fighting to liberate the island of Cuba from the Spanish colonialists.

 

Samoury Toure (? - 1900)
Died on June 2, 1900 while imprisoned in France.

 

Marcus Garvey [UNIA, ACL] (1887 - 1940)
Died in exile after being wrongly convicted of mail fraud by the U.S. Government and deported. Garvey was subsequently denied entry into most countries and their colonies where he enjoyed a strong following in an attempt to isolate him from his organizational apparatus.

 

M’Balia Camara [RDA] (? - 1955)

Murdered: February 8, 1955 by a local governor assisting French imperialism in Guinea.

 

Dedan Kimathi [Mau Mau] (1920 - 1957)

Executed: February 18, 1957 by British soldiers for leading an insurrection in Kenya against the British imperialists.

 

Felix Moumie [UPC] (1926 - 1960)

Poisoned: November 3, 1960 by French imperialist agents in Cameroon.

 

Patrice Lumumba [Prime Minister – Congo] (1925 - 1961)

Assassinated: January 17, 1961 by U.S. backed counter-revolutionary forces while in the custody of the illegitimate Katanga government.

 

Medgar Evers [NAACP] (1925 - 1963)

Assassinated: June 12, 1963 in Mississippi by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the White Citizen’s Council and the Ku Klux Klan.

 

Malcolm X [MMI, OAAU] (1925 - 1965)

Assassinated: February 21, 1965 in New York City by persons affiliated with the Nation Of Islam. Assassins believed to be FBI infiltrators/provocateurs.

 

Tobias Hainyeko [PLAN] (? - 1967)

Killed May 18, 1967 fighting against South African Imperialism in present day Namibia.

 

Martin Luther King [SCLC] (1929 - 1968)

Assassinated: April 4, 1968 in Memphis. James Earl Ray convicted but believed to be part of a larger government conspiracy.

 

Mateus Muthemba [FRELIMO] (? - 1968)

Assassinated: 1968 by Portuguese agents.

 

Arthur Morris [BPP] (1940 - 1968)

Assassinated: March, 1968 by government agents in Los Angeles.

 

Bobby "L'il Bobby" Hutton [BPP] (1950 - 1968)

Assassinated: April 6, 1968 by Oakland Police.

 

Steve Bartholemew [BPP] (1947 - 1968)

Assassinated: August 25, 1968 by Los Angeles Police.

 

Robert Lawrence [BPP] (1946 -1968)

Assassinated: August 25, 1968 by Los Angeles Police.

 

Tommy Lewis [BPP] (1950 - 1968)

Assassinated: August 25, 1968 by Los Angeles Police.

 

Welton "Butch" Armstead [BPP] (1951 - 1968)

Assassinated: October 15, 1968 by Seattle Police.

 

Sidney Miller [BPP] (1947 - 1968)

Assassinated: November 7, 1968 - Shot in the head at point blank range by a racist businessman in Seattle.

 

Frank "Capt. Franko" Diggs [BPP] (1928 - 1968)

Assassinated: December 30, 1968 by unknown assailants in Los Angeles.

 

Carlos Marighella [PCB, ALN] (1911 - 1969)
Assassinated: November 4, 1969 in ambush by Brazilian police.

 

Alprentice "Bunchy" Carter [BPP] (1942 - 1969)

Assassinated: January 17, 1969 on the campus of UCLA by members of the US organization due to tensions engendered by the FBI's COINTELPRO campaign.

 

John Huggins [BPP] (1946 - 1969)

Assassinated: January 17, 1969 on the campus of UCLA by members of the US organization due to tensions engendered by the FBI's COINTELPRO campaign.

 

Eduardo Mondlane [FRELIMO] (1920 - 1969)

Assassinated: February, 1969 with a parcel bomb in Tanzania by Portuguese agents.

 

John Savage [BPP] (? - 1969)

Assassinated: May 23, 1969 in San Diego by members of the US organization due to tensions engendered by the FBI's COINTELPRO campaign.

 

Sylvester Bell [BPP] (1936 - 1969)

Assassinated: August 15, 1969 in San Diego by members/infiltrators of the US organization resulting from tensions engendered by the FBI's COINTELPRO campaign.

 

Alex Rackley [BPP] (1944 -1969)

Assassinated: May 21, 1969 in New Haven in an atmosphere of confusion engendered by the FBI's COINTELPRO campaign. Circumstances surrounding death remains a controversy to date.

 

Clarence 13X (aka Allah, fka Clarence Smith) [NGE] (1928 - 1969)

Assassinated: June 12, 1969 in Harlem, New York City by persons believed affiliated with the Nation Of Islam.

 

Larry Roberson [BPP] (1949 - 1969)

Assassinated: September 4, 1969 by Chicago Police.

 

Nathaniel Clark [BPP] (1950 - 1969)

Assassinated: September 12, 1969 as he slept by unknown assailants in Los Angeles.

 

Eugene Anderson [BPP] (? -1969)

Assassinated: July 12, 1969 - Victim of fratricide within the Party resulting from repression tactics initiated by the Baltimore Police Department.

 

Walter "Toure" Pope [BPP] (1949 -1969)

Assassinated: October 18, 1969 by the Los Angeles Metro Squad.

 

Spurgeon "Jake" Winters [BPP] (1950 - 1969)

Assassinated: November 13, 1969 by Chicago Police.

 

Fred Hampton [BPP] (1948 - 1969)

Assassinated: December 4, 1969 in a pre-dawn raid by Chicago Police after being drugged by FBI informant William O'neil.

 

Mark Clark [BPP] (1947 - 1969)

Assassinated: December 4, 1969 in a pre-dawn raid by Chicago Police.

 

Sterling Jones [BPP] (1952 - 1969)

Assassinated: December 25, 1969 - Shot in the face at point blank range by an unknown assailant in Chicago.

 

Ralph Featherstone [SNCC] (? - 1970)

Assassinated: March 9, 1970 by a car bomb in Bel Air, Maryland.

 

William “Che” Payne [SNCC] (? - 1970)

Assassinated: March 9, 1970 by a car bomb in Bel Air, Maryland.

 

Larry Ward [BPP] (1947 - 1970)

Assassinated: May 15, 1970 by Seattle police.

 

Carl Hampton [PP II] (? - 1970)

Assassinated: July 26, 1970 by Houston Police.

 

Babatunde X Omarwali [BPP] (1944 - 1970)

Assassinated: July 27, 1970 by Chicago Police who mutilated his body beyond recognition by placing it across railroad tracks.

 

Jonathan Jackson [BPP] (1953 - 1970)

Assassinated: August 7, 1970 by San Quentin Prison Guards as he led an attempted prison break at Marin County Courthouse.

 

Fred Bennett [BPP] (? - 1971)

Assassinated: February, 1971 - Victim of fratricide orchestrated by COINTELPRO following the internal "split" of the Black Panther Party.

 

Robert Webb [BPP] (1949 - 1971)

Assassinated: March 8, 1971 - Victim of FBI orchestrated fratricide following the internal "split" of the Party.

 

Josina Machel [FRELIMO] (1945 - 1971)

Died due to complications associated with liver cancer at the age of 25 on April 7, 1971 during the revolutionary struggle for independence against imperialist state of Portugal.

 

Samuel Napier [BPP] (? - 1971)

Assassinated: April 17, 1971 by unknown assailants in Queens.

 

George Jackson [BPP], PA (1941 - 1971)

Assassinated: August 21, 1971 by San Quentin Prison Guards after numerous failed attempts on his life.

 

Sandra "Red" Pratt [BPP] (? - 1971)

Assassinated: November, 1971 in Los Angeles while visibly in her eighth month of pregnancy and stuffed in a garbage dumpster.

 

James Carr [BPP] (? - 1972)

Assassinated: April 6, 1972 by hired assassins in San Jose, California.

 

Joseph "Joe-Dell" Waddell [BPP] (1951 - 1972)

Assassinated: June 13, 1972 by Central Prison Guards in Raleigh.

 

Cindy Smallwood, [BPP] (1955 - 1973)

Died due to complications associated with car accident while conducting Party business in Oakland.

 

Zayd Malik Shakur (fka James Costan) [BPP, BLA] (? - 1973)

Assassinated: May 2, 1973 by New Jersey State Troopers on the New Jersey Turnpike.

 

Twymon Myers [BPP, BLA] (1952 -1973)

Assassinated: November, 1973 by agents of the FBI in Manhattan.

 

Rory Hithe [BPP, BLA] (? - 1973)

Assassinated: November 13, 1973 at a community meeting in San Francisco. His assailant was released only days following the assassination.

 

Amilcar Cabral [PAIGC] (1924 - 1973)

Assassinated: January, 1973 in Guinea by Portuguese agents.

 

Herbert Chitepo [ZANU] (1923 - 1975)

Assassinated: March 18, 1975 in Zambia by a car bomb believed to be placed by Rhodesian security agents.

 

Steve Biko [BCM] (1946 - 1977)

Assassinated: September 12, 1977 while in custody of South African Police.

 

Mangaliso Sobukwe [PAC] (1924 - 1977)

Died of cancer shortly after release from prison at Robben Island in South Africa. Believed to be exposed to carcinogens while in prison.

 

Fred Ahmed Evans (1928 - 1978)

Died of cancer while imprisoned in the Ohio State Penitentiary. Believed to be exposed to carcinogens while in prison.

 

Agostinho Neto [President – Angola] (1922 - 1979)

Died September 10, 1979 while serving as Angola's first President. Believed to be poisoned by Portuguese agents.

 

Walter Rodney [WPA] (1942 - 1980)

Assassinated: June 13, 1980 by a car bomb planted by agents of the Guyana government.

 

Mtayari Sundiata (fka Samuel Smith) [BLA] (? - 1981)

Killed October 20, 1981during an attempt to expropriate funds from an armored vehicle in order to fund underground revolutionary activities.

 

Maurice Bishop [Prime Minister – Grenada] (1944 - 1983)

Executed: October, 1983 in a counter-revolutionary military coup led by forces loyal to Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard. Bishop, along with 5 other members of his cabinet were summarily executed.

 

Kuwasi Balagoon (fka Donald Weems) [BPP, BLA] (1946 - 1986)

Died while imprisoned due to complications associated with the AIDS virus. Believed to be exposed to the virus while serving prison term.

 

Samora Machel [President – Mozambique] (1933 - 1986)

Killed: October 19, 1986 in a mysterious plane crash over South Africa.

 

Thomas Sankara [President – Burkino Faso] (1950 - 1987)

Assassinated: October 15, 1987 in a counter-revolutionary military coup led by troops loyal to Capt. Blaise Compaore.

 

Huey P. Newton [BPP] (1942 -1989)
Murdered: August, 23, 1989 on the streets of Oakland by a supposedly low level drug dealer.

 

Chris Hani [ANC, SACP] (1942 - 1993)

Assassinated: April 10, 1993 by pro-Apartheid forces in South Africa.

 

Albert “Nuh” Washington [BPP, BLA] (? - 2000)

Died of cancer while imprisoned in the Coxsackie Correctional Facility in New York. Evidence strongly suggests that he was unjustly convicted.

 

Roosevelt “Rosie” Douglas [Prime Minister – Dominica] (1941 - 2000)

Assassinated: October 1, 2000. Believed to be poisoned by British agents.

 

 

 

 

ALN - National Liberation Action (Brazil)

ANC - African National Congress (South Africa)

ACL - African Communities League (International)

BCM - Black Consciousness Movement (South Africa)

BLA - Black Liberation Army (USA)

BPP - Black Panther Party (USA)

FRELIMO - Mozambique Liberation Front

MMI - Muslim Mosque, Inc. (USA)

MPLA - Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola

NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (USA)

NGE - Nation of Gods and Earths (USA)

OAAU - Organization of Afro-American Unity (USA)

PA - People's Army (USA)

PAC - Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (South Africa)

PAIGC - African Party for Independence of Guinea-Bissau and the Cape Verde Islands

PCB - Brazilian Communist Party

PLAN - People’s Liberation Army of Namibia

PP II - People's Party (USA)

PRC - Cuban Revolutionary Party

RDA - African Democratic Rally (Guinea)

SACP - South African Communist Party

SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference (USA)

SNCC - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (USA)

UNIA - Universal Negro Improvement Association (International)

UPC - People's Union of Cameroon

WPA - Working People's Alliance (Guyana)

ZANU - Zimbabwe African National Union

 

 

Note:

John Brown is the only non-Black person included in this compilation. The author is aware of the controversy surrounding the motivations behind Brown's actions, but feels that his goal of liberation for the slaves was sincere and that his actions were based on just principles.

 

Despite denials to the contrary, several political prisoners still languish in the prison warehouses of the USA even today. The vast majority of these political prisoners have been unjustly incarcerated due to their political involvement dating back to the US Civil Rights Movement and Black Liberation Movement of the 1960’s and 70’s. While these individuals have not been listed on this compilation, we honor them for their sacrifice and encourage all freedom-loving individuals to continue working to bring attention to their unjust incarceration which, in some cases, has spanned more than 30 years.

 

 

Contributing Sources:

Crossroad - New Afrikan Captured Combatant Newsletter

The Black Panther - Black Community News Service

The Black Panther - Intercommunal News Service

Sankore Institute Resource Library

Before The Mayflower, L. Bennett

The Big Dance, J. Castellucci

Bitter Grain, M. Newton

 

 

Originally compiled by the Education Ministry of the Pan-African Panther Party in conjunction with the Sankore Institute for Research & Development